Timeline--United States

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AMERICAN INVOLVEMENT IN THE ARAB-ISRAELI CONFLICT:

1922: A Congressional resolution was passed in the United States backing the League of Nations mandate for a Jewish homeland in Palestine. 1948: The United States, under President Truman, was the first country to recognize Israel, only minutes (11 minutes) after it was officially created in 1948. -Truman was a supporter of the Zionist movement, while Secretary of State George Marshall feared U.S. backing of a Jewish state would harm relations with the Muslim world, limit access to Middle Eastern oil, and destabilize the region. The social critic Gore Vidal claimed the American Zionists contributed large sums of money in secret which helped Truman win the presidency in exchange for Truman's support of Israel. - Following the 1948 wars, Israel applied to the U.S. for economic aid to help absorb immigrants. President Truman responded by approving a $135 million Export-Import Bank loan and the sale of surplus commodities to Israel.

1951: Congress voted to help Israel cope with the economic burdens imposed by the influx of Jewish refugees from the displaced persons camps in Europe and from the ghettos of the Arab countries

1956: The United States after heavy diplomatic pressure managed to force Israel to withdraw its military from the Sinai Peninsula during 1956 Suez War after the Soviet Union threatened to intervene on behalf of Egypt and expand the war.

1963: Leading up to the war of 1967, Lyndon Johnson Administration (1963-1969), although sympathetic to Israel's need was nevertheless worried that Israel's response was disproportionate and potentially destabilizing. Israel's raid into Jordan was also troubling to the U.S. because Jordan was also an ally, having received over $500 million in aid.

1967: During the 1967 war, Israeli warplanes and warships attacked a US Navy intelligence ship, USS Liberty, in international waters killing 34 and wounding at least 173. The incident was quickly excused as a mistake by Israel.

1968: The US, under President Johnson with strong support from Congress, approved the sale of Phantom fighters to Israel, establishing the precedent for U.S. support for Israel's qualitative military edge over its neighbors. The U.S., however, would continue to supply arms to Israel's neighbors, Lebanon and Saudi Arabia, to counter Soviet arms sales in the region.

1973: During the 1973 war, the U.S. carried out a strategic airlift operation to deliver weapons and supplies to Israel in what is sometimes called "the airlift that saved Israel." On October 20th, in the midst of the war, Saudi Arabia declared an embargo against the United States, later joined by other oil exporters for helping Israel causing the 1973 energy crisis. The embargo was lifted in March 1974.

-During the war, the United States exerted tremendous pressure on the Israelis to refrain from destroying the Egyptian trapped army. Kissinger also pressured the Israelis to cede land to the Arabs after the war, contributing to the first phases of a lasting Israeli-Egyptian peace.

1975: The United States voted against the UN General Assembly Resolution 3379 which equated Zionism with racism along with 72 other countries.

1978: Under the witness of the United States President Jimmy Carter, the Camp David Accords were signed by Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin on September 17, 1978. The agreement also resulted in the United States committing to several billion dollars worth of annual subsidies to the governments of both Israel and Egypt, subsidies which continue to this day.

1981: The United States and Israel signed a memorandum of understanding (MOU), establishing a framework for continued consultation and cooperation to enhance the national security of both countries.

1982: Serious differences between U.S. policies and Israel were exposed during the Lebanon war of 1982. Israel's use of U.S.-provided military equipment in the attack on Lebanon and Israel's rejection of the Reagan peace plan of September 1, 1982 were all criticized by the United States.

1983: The United States and Israel formed on November 1983, a Joint Political Military Group, which meets twice a year, to implement most provisions of the MOU (memorandum of understanding).

1984: On June of 1984, the United States and Israel began joint air and sea military exercises. The United States also constructed facilities to stockpile military equipment in Israel.

1985: The United States maintained grant aid to Israel at $3 billion annually and implemented a free trade agreement in 1985. Since then all customs duties between the two trading partners have since been eliminated.

1988: Israel was granted "major non-NATO ally" status in 1988 that gave it access to expanded weapons systems and opportunities to bid on U.S. defense contracts. - In December 1988, many Israelis were saddened when the United States opened a dialog with the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) 1990: President Bush raised Israeli ire when he reminded a press conference on March 3, 1990, that East Jerusalem was occupied territory and not a sovereign part of Israel as the Israelis claimed. 1991: The United States urged Israel not to retaliate against Iraq for the attacks because it was believed that Iraq wanted to draw Israel into the conflict and force other coalition members, Egypt and Syria in particular, to quit the coalition and join Iraq in a war against Israel. Israel did not retaliate, and gained praise for its restraint. This also eased tension between Israel and the United States. -The United States played a major role in convening the Madrid peace conference in October 1991 and in persuading all the parties to engage in the subsequent peace negotiations. It was reported widely that during this time, the Bush Administration did not share an amicable relationship with the Israeli government.

1993: The official singing of the Oslo Accords, took place in a public ceremony in Washington D.C. on September 13, 1993, with Mahmoud Abbas signing for the Palestine Liberation Organization and Shimon Peres signing for the State of Israel. It was witnessed by Warren Christopher for the United States and Andrei Kozyrev for Russia, in the presence of US President Bill Clinton and Israel's Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin with the PLO's Chairman Yasser Arafat -President Clinton announced on September 10 that the United States and the PLO would reestablish their dialog.

1994: On October 26 1994, President Clinton witnessed the Jordan-Israeli peace treaty signing.

1995: Both houses of Congress in the US mandated that the embassy of America in Israel be moved to Jerusalem. U.S. legislation has granted Jerusalem status as a capital in particular instances and sought to prevent U.S. official recognition of Palestinian claims to the city. -Clinton along with Egyptian President Mubarak, and King Hussein of Jordan witnessed the White House signing of the September 28, 1995 Interim Agreement between Israel and the Palestinians 1996: On March, 1996, President Clinton during his visit to Israel offered $100 million in aid for Israel's anti-terror activities, another $200 million for the Arrow anti-missile deployment, and about $50 million for an anti-missile laser weapon. -President Clinton disagreed with Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu's policy of expanding Jewish settlements in the occupied territories, and it was reported that the President believed that the Prime Minister delayed the peace process.

1998: Israeli, congressional, and Administration officials agreed to reduce U.S. $1.2 billion in Economic Support Funds (ESF) to zero over ten years, while increasing Foreign Military Financing (FMF) from $1.8 billion to $2.4 billion. - Israel requested an additional $1.2 billion in aid to fund moving troops and military installations out of the occupied territories as called for in the October 23, 1998, Wye agreement. Israel received $600 million of this in military aid in Fiscal Year 1999 and $300 million in each fiscal year 2000 and 2001.

2000: The United States persuaded Israel to cancel the sale of the Phalcon, an advanced, airborne early-warning system, to China.

2001: On October 4, 2001, the White House called the remark made by Sharon as unacceptable after accusing the Bush Administration of appeasing the Palestinians at Israel's expense in a bid for Arab support for the U. S. anti-terror campaign. Rather than apologize for the remark, Sharon said the United States failed to understand him. Also, the United States criticized the Israeli practice of assassinating Palestinians believed to be engaged in terrorism, which appeared to some Israelis to be inconsistent with the U.S. policy of pursuing Osama bin Laden "dead or alive." -The U.S. spent approximately $4.5 billion in military aid in 2001, of which $2 billion went to Israel, $1.3 billion went to Egypt, and $1 billion went to Colombia.

2003: Israel received an extra $1.2 billion to fund implementation of the Wye agreement, $200 million in anti-terror assistance and $1 billion in FMF in the supplemental appropriations bill for fiscal year 2003.

2004: The U.S. provided $9 billion in loan guarantees over three years, to help Israel out of its economic recession.

2005: The Bush Administration supported Israel's disengagement from Gaza as a way to return to the Road Map process to achieve a solution based on two states, Israel and Palestine, living side by side in peace and security.

-For the 2005 fiscal year, Israel received $357 million in ESF (Exchange Stabilization Fund), $2.202 billion in FMF, and $50 million in migration settlement assistance.

-The U.S. Department of Defense was angered by Israel's agreement to upgrade Harpy Killer unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) that it sold to China in 1999. China tested the weapon over the Taiwan Strait in 2004. The Department suspended technological cooperation with the Israeli Air Force on the future F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) aircraft as well as several other cooperative programs, held up shipments of some military equipment, and refused to communicate with Israeli Defense Ministry Director, General Amos Yaron, whom Pentagon officials believe misled them about the Harpy deal. According to a reputable Israeli military journalist, the U.S. Department of Defense demanded details of 60 Israeli deals with China, an examination of Israel's security equipment supervision system, and a memorandum of understanding about arms sales to prevent future difficulties.

- The Israeli government further requested U.S. permission to provide maintenance for 22 Venezuelan Air Force F-16 fighter jets, but permission has not been granted to proceed with the deal. On October 21, 2005, it was reported that Israel will freeze or cancel the deal.


2006: The United States was the only member out of the 15-nation UN body to oppose any council action against Israel during its war in Lebanon. Leading the Nations Security Council to rejected pleas from Lebanon for an immediate ceasefire between Israel and Lebanon.

-On 14 July, the US Congress was notified of a potential sale of $210 million worth of jet fuel to Israel. On 24 July, the United States was also in the process of providing Israel with "bunker buster" bombs, which would allegedly be used to target the leader of Lebanon's Hezbollah guerrilla group and destroy its trenches.

-The Bush administration requested $240 million in ESF and $2.28 billion in FMF for Israel which passed in the House on June 28, 2005, and in the Senate on July 20. The House and Senate measures also support $40 million for the settlement of migrants from the former Soviet Union and Israel's plan to bring remaining Ethiopian Jews to Israel in three years.

-American media recently questioned whether Israel had violated an agreement not to use American supplied cluster bombs on civilian targets. Evidence during its conflict with Hezbollah guerrillas had shown that cluster bombs had been used in civilian areas, and several bomb particles remained undetonated after the war causing hazard for Lebanese children. Israel has responded to these accusations by saying that it had not violated any international law.

- The United States and France drafted a resolution which was subsequently accepted unanimously by the different parties at the United Nations on 11 August 2006 that ended the hostilities between Israel and Hezbollah. The ceasefire began on Monday, 14 August 2006 at 8 AM local time, after increased attacks by both sides.


REFERENCES

http://www.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/80889D97-16A5-443F-80AA-1F84D8E1E3AB.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gulf_War

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Suez_Crisis

http://www.palestinefacts.org/pf_1991to_now_israel_us_support.php

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1948_Arab-Israeli_War

http://www.geocities.com/d_elazar/USA/IsraelAidUSA.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Six-Day_War

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/War_of_Attrition

http://www.usembassy-israel.org.il/

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yom_Kippur_War

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Israeli_invasion_of_Lebanon_1982

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Intifada

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Intifada

http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/pages/ShArt.jhtml?itemNo=332818&contrassID=2&subContrassID=1&sbSubContrassID=0&listSrc=Y

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/UN_General_Assembly_Resolution_3379

http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/US-Israel/foreign_aid.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Camp_David_Accords

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Israel-United_States_relations

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Israel_lobby_in_the_United_States

http://www.palestinefacts.org/pf_1991to_now_israel_us_support.php

http://www.israelemb.org/US-Israel-Relations/US-israel-Relations.html,

http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/pages/ShArt.jhtml?itemNo=332818&contrassID=2&subContrassID=1&sbSubContrassID=0&listSrc=Y

http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/US-Israel/U.S._Assistance_to_Israel1.html

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