Timeline--Russia

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RUSSIA INVOLVEMENT IN THE ARAB- ISRAELI CONFLICT:

1944: From late 1944 until 1948, USSR under Stalin adopted a de facto pro-Zionist foreign policy, apparently believing that the new country would be socialist and would speed the decline of British influence in the Middle East. 1948: The Soviet Union legally recognized Israel three days after it declared its independence; however, by the end of 1948 and throughout the course of the Cold War, the Soviet Union unequivocally supported various Arab regimes against Israel. The official position of the Soviet Union and its satellite states and agencies was that Zionism was a tool used by the Jews and Americans for "racist imperialism". -The Soviets along with the United States called the Arab states' entry into Palestine against Israel as an illegal aggression.

1956: The USSR threatened to intervene on behalf of Egypt against an alliance between the United Kingdom, France and Israel during the Suez Canal Crisis. This Crisis also marked the completion of the shift in the global balance of power from traditional European powers to the Soviet Union and the United States.

1967: There are theories that the entire 1967 War was a botched attempt by the Soviet Union to create tensions between West Germany and Arab countries by highlighting West Germany's support for Israel. Isabella Ginor in a 2003 article for example, detailed Soviet GRU (Glavnoe Razvedyvatel'noe Upravlenie), meaning Main Intelligence Directorate documents proposing such a plan and further detailing faulty intelligence fed to Egypt claiming troop buildups near the Golan Heights in Syria. Soviet Union in the 1967 war directly assisted the Arab forces.

- The amount of Soviet propaganda against Israel intensified after the 1967 Six-Day War through the doctrine of Zionology. The doctrine was officially sponsored by the Department of propaganda of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and by the KGB. Zionology was strongly anti-Zionist; it alleged that Zionism was a form of racism and sometimes argued that Zionists were similar to Nazis.

1968: During the War of Attrition between Egypt and Israel from 1968 to 1970. The Soviet Union supplied significant weaponry to Egypt which helped to redeem its material losses from the Six-Day War more quickly than Israel had expected. Moreover, hundreds of Soviet military advisors poured into Egypt and at the beginning of the war 1,500 advisors were stationed in the country. Their presence, along with Soviet pilots and ships, threatened to escalate the conflict into an East-West confrontation.

-On January 22, 1970, President Nasser secretly flew to Moscow to discuss the situation. His request for new SAM batteries was approved. Their deployment would require qualified personnel along with squadrons of aircraft to protect them from Israeli attacks. In effect, he needed Soviet troops in large numbers, something Moscow could not allow. He then threatened to resign, implying that Egypt might turn to Washington for help in the future. The Soviets had invested heavily in President Nasser's regime and so Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev finally obliged. By June 30 the number of Soviet personnel had increased from 2,500–4,000 in January to 10,600–12,150, plus 100–150 pilots. The Soviets' direct intervention, known as Operation Kavkaz, proved to be troublesome for Israel.

1970: In April 1970 negotiations between Israel and Egypt resumed, this time with the U.S. being the primary negotiator. A cease-fire agreement was reached on August 7. It was to last for three months and neither side was allowed to change "the military status quo within zones extending 50 kilometers to the east and west of the cease-fire line."

1972: In July 1972, Soviet “advisers and experts” were expelled by Egyptian president Sadat due to the Russian failure to provide the sophisticated weapons he felt were needed to retake territory lost to Israel in 1967. Sadat also reoriented the country's foreign policy to be more favorable to the United States.

1975: The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics voted a “YES” in the UN General Assembly Resolution 3379 which equated Zionism with racism.

1978: The Soviet Union lost Egypt under its sphere of influence almost entirely after Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin signed The Camp David Accords on September 17, 1978; following twelve days of secret negotiations at Camp David. 1983: On March 29, 1983, the Secretariat of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union approved and supported the resolution (101/62ГС) of the Department of Propaganda of the Central Committee and the KGB USSR to create the Anti-Zionist Committee of the Soviet Public. The committee core was made up of ethnic Jews. Using Jews to destroy Jewish culture and institutions was a proven tactics to avoid accusations of anti-Semitism. Unofficially, they were known as the pocket Jews, a derogative implying their corruption by high positions in the hierarchy.

1990: The early 1990s were marked by a beginning of a massive immigration of Soviet Jews to Israel who, according to the Law of Return, were entitled to become Israeli citizens upon arrival. About 380,000 arrived in 1990-91 alone. The influx of Jewish immigrants from the former USSR topped 750,000 during the period 1989–1999, bringing the population of Israel from the former Soviet Union to one million, one-sixth of the total population, and adding scientific and professional expertise of substantial value for the economy's future. The influx, coupled with the opening of new markets at the end of the Cold War, energized Israel's economy, which grew rapidly in the early 1990s. 1991: Russian and the United States sponsored the Madrid Peace Conference which brought together all parties in the Middle East region to discuss and resolve the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. 1993: The foreign minister of Russia Andrei Kozyrev witnessed with Warren Christopher in the presence of US President Bill Clinton and Israel's Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin with the PLO's Chairman Yasser Arafat the finalizing of the Oslo Accords which was officially signed at a public ceremony in Washington D.C. on September 13, 1993, with Mahmoud Abbas signing for the Palestine Liberation Organization and Shimon Peres signing for the State of Israel. -The Oslo Accords were a culmination of a series of secret and public agreements, dating particularly from the Madrid Conference of 1991 onwards, and negotiated between the Israeli government and the Palestine Liberation Organization. 2001: After 2001, the government of Vladimir Putin intensified Russia's involvement in the region, supporting Iran in its nuclear ambitions and forgiving Syria 73% of its $13 billion debt. 2006: On February 10, 2006, the president of the Russian Federation Vladimir Putin, stated that Russia does not consider Hamas a terrorist organization and officially invited them to Moscow, a move that confounded many politicians and analysts worldwide, including comparisons with Russian involvement in Chechnya whose militants such as Shamil Basayev Putin considers "terrorists". The perspective of giving legitimacy to Hamas has angered some Israeli officials. A cabinet minister Meir Sheetrit accused Putin of "stabbing Israel in the back"

-On March 3, 2006 the Russia-Hamas talks began, when Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov met with Hamas leader Khaled Meshaal to discuss the future of the peace process in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict after Hamas became the majority party of the Palestinian National Authority Legislative Council, having won a majority of seats in the Palestinian elections. The group is listed as a terrorist organization by Australia, Canada, the European Union, Israel, and the United States, and is banned in Jordan.

-Russia sharply criticized Israel over its offensive against Hezbollah guerrillas following the capture of two Israeli soldiers by Hezbollah, saying its actions have gone "far beyond the boundaries of an anti-terrorist operation" and repeating calls for an immediate cease-fire. The Foreign Ministry said that Russia affirms the need to fight terrorism and called for the immediate release of Israeli hostages, but added that the "unprecedented scale of the casualties and destruction" in Lebanon indicates that Israel is using too much force. Russia also called the retaliation as a "disproportionate act of war”.


-After the Cease-fire was reached following the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1701, Russia was one of the states that showed its willingness to send troops to South Lebanon to maintain peace between Hezbollah and Israel.


http://online.wsj.com/public/article/SB115306760246608000-7Uhok1UC1__Xowmj9wmPQZZ2vmA_20060823.html?mod=tff_main_tff_top

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zionology

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GRU

http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/RWB.NSF/db900SID/SODA-6RX96L?OpenDocument

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gulf_War

http://www.cfr.org/publication/11099/violent_precedents_again_in_middle_east.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Suez_Crisis

http://www.rferl.org/featuresarticle/2006/07/4ae2a98d-13b9-40eb-b3d8-3ba52d5fc35f.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1948_Arab-Israeli_War

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Six-Day_War

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/War_of_Attrition

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yom_Kippur_War

http://english.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/013B1ECF-6E04-401E-A62F-2E70D849E39B.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Israeli_invasion_of_Lebanon_1982

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Intifada

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/1844214.stm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Intifada

http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/2006-07-16-mideast-monitor_x.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/UN_General_Assembly_Resolution_3379

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Camp_David_Accords

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arab_League_and_the_Arab-Israeli_conflict

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oslo_accords

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anti-Zionist_committee_of_the_Soviet_public

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andrei_Kozyrev

http://www.signonsandiego.com/news/world/20060717-9999-1n17summit.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russia_and_the_Arab-Israeli_conflict

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russia_and_the_Arab-Israeli_conflict

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