Timeline--Lebanon

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LEBANON INVOLVEMENT IN THE ARAB- ISRAELI CONFLICT:

1947: Lebanon's Muslim Prime Minister, Riad Solh, urged the Arab League to prevent the partition of Palestine, and backed the creation of the Arab Liberation Army. 1948: On May 15, 1948, Lebanese military units crossed the Palestine border at Rosh HaNikra to attack the newly proclaimed Jewish State, along with the other Arab armies. The attack failed.The Lebanese army was the smallest of the Arab armies, consisting of only 3,500 soldiers. Of these a token force of 1,000 was committed to the invasion. -On 31 October, 1948, the Arab Liberation Army was defeated at the Battle of Sasa and forced to flee into Lebanon, the new Israel Defense Forces in pursuit. Lebanon immediately accepted an armistice and the IDF withdrew. 1949: Lebanon signed armistices agreement with Israel on March 23, 1949

1967: Lebanon joined the armies of Egypt, Jordan, and Syria that were poised on the borders of Israel before the 1967 war began.

1973: Lebanon did not join the Arab war effort when the fourth Arab-Israeli War broke out on Oct. 6, 1973 due to its small army and already evident instability in the country.

1975: The Lebanese Civil War (1975–1990) began due to the nation's changing demographic trends, Christian and Muslim inter-religious strife, and the involvement of Syria, Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO). After a short break in the fighting in 1976 due to Arab League mediation and Syrian intervention, civil strife continued, with fighting primarily focused in south Lebanon, controlled first by the PLO, then occupied by Israel.

-Lebanon, along with 25 other nations supported the UN General Assembly Resolution 3379 which equated Zionism with racism. The resolution passed but was later revoked.

1976: President Hafez Al-Assad of Syria intervened in the Lebanese civil war on behalf of Maronite Christians in Lebanon against the Palestinians located in the South of the country.

-For humanitarian and public relations motives, in 1976 Israel unilaterally initiated a "Good Fence" program where Lebanese could enter Israel for medical, tourism, and work reasons. The program was suspended in 1981 and the de facto Israel-Lebanon border has been sealed against civilian travel since then. Lebanon still adheres to the Arab League Boycott.

1982: Israel invades and occupies the south of Lebanon, including Beirut, to prevent Palestinian attacks and a response to the assassination attempt against Israel's ambassador to the United Kingdom, Shlomo Argov by Fatah - Revolutionary Council. During the course of the invasion Syrian and Israeli forces clashed in eastern Lebanon leading to the suspension of peace initiatives, and the pro-Israeli Christian South Lebanon Army (SLA) commits a series of massacres and human rights abuses. The invasion is popularly held to be the major catalyst for the creation of the Iranian and Syrian supported Hezbollah organization, which replaced the vanquished PLO in Southern Lebanon.

1983: After the assassination of Bashir Gemayel (leader of the Phalangist Party, a right-wing nationalist organization supported mostly by Maronite Christians), Israel and Lebanon signed a peace treaty agreement on May 17, 1983. Lebanon signed the agreement under American and Israeli pressure, but it was opposed by Syria.

1985: Most Israeli troops withdraw from Lebanon, but the South Lebanese Army continued to operate in the security zone with the support of some Israeli soldiers.

1989: In March-September fighting between the Christian Lebanese Forces and Muslim forces allied with Syria erupted. Syria actively participated in the conflict and later endorsed the Charter of National Reconciliation, or "Taif Accord," a comprehensive plan for ending the Lebanese conflict negotiated under the auspices of Saudi Arabia, Algeria, and Morocco.

1992: Sheikh Abbas al-Musawi, the secretary-general of Hezbollah was assassinated with a missile fired from an Israeli helicopter gunship.

1993: Israel carries out its heaviest attack on Lebanon in more than a decade with the intention of wiping out Hezbollah.

1996: In response to Hizballah's resistance actions on Israeli military bases in south Lebanon, Israel conducted operation "Grapes of Wrath" in early April 1996. The 16-day operation caused hundreds of thousands of civilians in south Lebanon to flee their homes. On April 18, several Israeli shells struck refugee compounds, killing 102 civilians sheltered there. Israel expressed regret for the deaths but blamed Hizballah for using the area as a place for artillery. -Hizballah and Israel singed the "April Understanding" on April 26 that committed both parties to avoid targeting civilians and using populated areas to launch attacks. The Israel-Lebanon Monitoring Group, co-chaired by France and the United States, with Syria also represented, was set up to implement the Understanding and assess reports of violations.

2000: On May 23, 2000, the Israeli military carried out a total withdrawal of Israeli troops from the South and the Bekaa valley in accordance with 1978's United Nations Security Council Resolution 425, effectively ending 22 years of occupation. -Hezbollah waged a guerrilla campaign against Israeli forces during the 22 years of occupation. Given that prior Arab-Israeli wars were characterized by either Israeli victory or UN-enforced ceasefire, this is often regarded as a success of Hezbollah, which was able to extend its control of Southern Lebanon.

2002: Israel threatens a return to military action against Lebanon after a disagreement over the Wazzani River, which provides 10% of Israel’s drinking water. -In March 2002, in honor of the expulsion of Israeli troops from the South of the country, the Arab League met in Lebanon for the first time since 1967.

2003: On May 20, Israeli naval commandos intercepted a vessel, “the Abu Hassan,” on course to the Gaza Strip from Lebanon. It was loaded with rockets, weapons, and ammunition. Eight crew members on board were arrested including a senior Hezbollah member.

2006: A military conflict in Lebanon and northern Israel erupted primarily between Hezbollah militia and Israel, which started on 12 July 2006. The conflict began when a Hezbollah unit conducted a cross-border raid into Israel, resulting in the killings of three and the capture of two Israeli soldiers. Israel responded with air-strikes throughout Lebanon (during which more than 7,000 targets were struck), a ground invasion of southern Lebanon, and an air and naval blockade, while Hezbollah launched thousands of rockets into Israel and engaged the Israeli Army on the ground in guerrilla warfare. During the conflict, over one thousand people—mostly Lebanese civilians—were killed. Lebanese civilian infrastructure was heavily damaged, with 130,000 homes reportedly damaged or destroyed in Israeli air raids and 256,000 Lebanese civilians internally displaced. A United Nations-brokered ceasefire went into effect on 14 August 2006.

Timeline of the conflict:

July 12: Hezbollah fighters seize two Israeli soldiers in a cross-border raid. Three Israeli soldiers are also killed in the attack. Hezbollah asks for the release of Palestinian prisoners held in Israeli jails in return for the soldiers. Israel's Prime Minister Ehud Olmert considered it an "act of war" by Lebanon and said he would make the country pay a "heavy price."

-Later that day, Israel launches a small cross-border raid in the area where the two soldiers were abducted. Hezbollah destroyed one Israeli tank, killing its four-man crew. Another Israeli was killed

-July 13: Israeli jets bomb the runway of Lebanon's only international airport, the Rafiq Hariri Airport in Beirut, at dawn. The airport is closed and flights are diverted. Israel announces an air and sea blockade of Lebanon, and says that Hezbollah will not be allowed to return to its former position along the border.

-Israeli aircraft attack what it says are Hezbollah targets across southern Lebanon. The raids kill 35 Lebanese civilians. Hezbollah fires rockets that hit towns in northern Israel, including Nahariya and Safed. Two civilians are killed.

July 14: Israel bombs targets across Lebanon including bridges, roads and power stations. Israeli aircraft also hits Hezbollah's headquarters in Beirut. Israel also attacks broadcasting facilities belonging to Hezbollah's Al-Manar television channel.

-Hezbollah fires an Iranian-made anti-shipping rocket at an Israeli naval vessel off Beirut. The attack kills four Israeli sailors. Israeli accuses the Lebanese army of assisting Hezbollah. Ehud Olmert, the Israeli prime minister, say Israel's operations will end only when rocket attacks on Israeli cities stop, when Israel's two abducted soldiers are released and when Lebanon implements United Nations Security Council Resolution 1559, which calls for Hezbollah to be disarmed. July 15: Israeli aircraft destroy Hezbollah's headquarters in southern Beirut in an attempt to kill Hasan Nasrallah, the group's leader. Israel bombs Lebanon's ports and other sites across Lebanon. The attacks kill at least 35 people. Eighteen Lebanese civilians die when an Israeli rockets hit their van near the southern city of Saida.

-Hassan Nasrallah, the leader of Hezbollah, promises "open war" against Israel. Hezbollah rockets hit Tiberias, an Israeli city in Galilee. The attacks are the deepest so far. Foreign governments make plans to evacuate their citizens from Lebanon.

July 16: Hezbollah rockets hit Haifa, Israel's second city, killing eight civilians and wounding more than 20. Ehud Olmert, the Israeli prime minister, says the Haifa attack will have "far-reaching consequences". Hassan Nasrallah, the leader of Hezbollah, says the battle against Israel is "just at the beginning". That evening more rockets land in other northern Israeli towns, wounding several more civilians.Continuing Israeli air attacks kills at least 23 people around Lebanon.

-Iran warns Israel that any attack on Syria will incur "unimaginable losses". July 17: Israeli strikes on Lebanon continue, killing more than 45 civilians. Hezbollah fires more rockets into Israel, injuring at least 10 civilians in Haifa and Safed. Israeli forces briefly enter parts of Lebanon to attack and destroy Hezbollah posts along the border.

- Kofi Annan, the UN secretary-general, calls for an international military force to separate the warring sides. Foreign governments begin evacuating their citizens from Lebanon. July 18: Israel continues its air strikes across Lebanon. The attacks kill 11 Lebanese soldiers in their army barracks east of Beirut. Hezbollah rockets again strike Haifa, wounding several Israelis. Saudi Arabia says it will support the deployment of an international military force to stabilize Lebanon. More than 200 Lebanese have now been killed in the Israeli offensive. July 19: Israel drops 23 tonnes of bombs on a single target in southern Beirut in an attempt to kill Hassan Nasrallah. More than 70 Lebanese civilians are killed as Israel continues its bombing campaign against Lebanese infrastructure and Hezbollah positions. Israeli commando units enter Lebanon at several points along the border. They discover several underground Hezbollah bunker complexes and engage in firefights with Hezbollah members. Two Israeli soldiers are killed.

-Hezbollah fire more than 100 missiles into Israel. One Israeli is killed in the town of Nahariya.An Israeli F-16 fighter aircraft crashes while taking off from its base in southern Israel. The pilot escapes unharmed.

July 20: Israeli army units enter southern Lebanon to attack Hezbollah positions near the border. Four Israeli soldiers are killed.An Israeli airman dies when two Apache attack helicopters collide near the northern border.

-Israeli air attacks on southern Lebanese towns and Baalbek kill 45 Lebanese civilians. Hezbollah fires more than 120 rockets at Israel. Two Arab children are killed in the Israeli-Arab town of Nazareth.

July 21: Israel calls up several reserve army battalions and drops leaflets over southern Lebanese villages warning civilians to leave the area. More than 100,000 civilians have already left their homes in south Lebanon. Brigadier-General Alon Friedman, who is in charge of Israeli army operations in the north, said: "It's possible that in the coming days our ground operations will increase."

-Hezbollah launches fewer rockets than on any day since the conflict began. Only 40 rockets reach Israel. The Israeli air force continues to hit targets around Lebanon. More than 300 Lebanese civilians have now been killed in the raids.

July 22: Israeli ground troops move into the village of Maroun al-Ras in south Lebanon and take control. The Israeli army insists that incursions will be limited in scope despite the recall of thousands of reserve troops.

-Israel continues its offensive by hitting communications targets in Lebanon, including a relay station used by several Lebanese television stations. Hezbollah fires at least 50 rockets hitting several cities and villages in northern Israel.

-Washington rushes a delivery of precision-guided bombs to Israel, according to The New York Times. Condoleezza Rice describes the plight of Lebanon as part of the "birth pangs of a new Middle East" and says that Israel should ignore calls for a ceasefire.

July 23: Israeli air strikes kill at least 12 civilians, including a Lebanese press photographer near the southern city of Tyre. The Israeli army said that it had taken control of the Lebanese border village of Maroun Al-Ras and had captured two Hezbollah members there.

-Hezbollah missiles land on Haifa killing two civilians and wounding several others. More than 2,200 rockets have hit Israel so far, says Amir Peretz, Israel's defence minister. Jan Egeland, the UN humanitarian chief, describes Israeli bombing of build-up areas as "a violation of humanitarian law" as he toured bombed areas of south Beirut.

July 24: Condoleezza Rice makes a visit to Beirut on the way to Israel. She blames Hezbollah for the war and says a ceasefire would be possible only if two captured Israeli soldiers are freed. Jan Egeland, the UN humanitarian chief, accuses Hezbollah of "cowardly blending" among Lebanese civilians.

-Israeli troops battle their way to a key Hezbollah stronghold in south Lebanon and capture two fighters.

July 25: Four soldiers from the United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon in south Lebanon are killed by an Israeli strike in south Lebanon. Israel says it plans to enforce a "security zone" in southern Lebanon until an international force can be sent to take over. Israeli troops enter the border town of Bint Jbeil, a Hezbollah military stronghold, for the first time. Mahmoud Komati, the deputy chief of the Hezbollah politburo, says he does not expect Israel to react so strongly to the group's capture of two Israeli soldiers. Human Rights Watch accuses Israel of using artillery-fired cluster grenades against a Lebanese village.

July 26: Israel is accused of ignoring repeated warnings that it was shelling close to United Nations observers in southern Lebanon before an Israeli bomb killed four of them.

- A 15-nation summit in Rome failed to reach agreement on calling for an immediate ceasefire in Lebanon. Israeli and Hezbollah forces continue battling for control of the town of Bint Jbeil in southern Lebanon.

July 27: Israel says it has been implicitly "authorized" to continue its attacks in Lebanon by the failure of Wednesday's international summit in Rome to call for a ceasefire.

-An Israeli security cabinet meeting agreed to continue air strikes whilst maintaining a limited ground offensive. Israeli warplanes hit Hezbollah targets in southern Lebanon, killing at least seven people, reports said. At least 40 Hezbollah rockets also hit several towns in northern Israel, including Kiryat Shimona.

July 28: George Bush, the US president, and Tony Blair, the British prime minister, agree to send a UN multinational force to support the Lebanese government.

-The Israeli government says it is ready to call up 30,000 reservists to support its offensive in Lebanon but says it will not expand its campaign for now. Nabih Berri, speaker of Lebanon's parliament and a leading Shia politician, says his Shia Amal movement and Hezbollah would join forces against Israel's offensive in Lebanon.

July 29: Fouad Siniora, the Lebanese prime minister, says that if Israel wants secure borders it must withdraw from the disputed Shebaa Farms area that it has occupied since 1967.

-Hassan Nasrallah, Hezbollah's leader, vows to hit Israel with more rockets and says that Condoleezza Rice's visit to the region is aimed to "impose conditions that serve Israel". July 30: An Israeli air raid on a south Lebanon village, Qana, kills more than 60 Lebanese civilians, most of them children who were sleeping.

-Thousands of protesters storm the UN building in Beirut after the attack and the United Nations, along with Western and Arab leaders, condemn the bombing raid. Lebanon cancels the visit by Condoleezza Rice.

July 31: Israel suspends its air attacks on southern Lebanon for 48 hours after meetings between Condoleezza Rice, the US secretary of state, and Ehud Olmert, the Israeli prime minister. Rice says she believes that a ceasefire could be forged within the week.

-Israel's security cabinet gives the army the green light to widen a ground offensive against Hezbollah fighters. Thousands of Lebanese reach across the sectarian and religious divide to help hundreds of thousands of mostly Shia refugees fleeing Israel’s bombardment in the south of the country.

August 1: Israeli forces moved into Lebanon in an expansion of their offensive, meeting fierce resistance from Hezbollah. Ehud Olmert, the Israeli prime minister, signals that a ceasefire may be on the horizon.

-The Israeli army says three Israeli soldiers have been killed in the fighting. Hezbollah launches multiple rockets at Matzuva in northern Israel, and the Israeli military says five of its soldiers have been wounded in cross-border fire.

-EU foreign ministers call for an immediate end to hostilities, watering down demands for an immediate ceasefire at the insistence of Britain and other close US allies. Israel's justice minister says about 300 of an estimated 2,000 Hezbollah fighters have been killed so far, while the tourism minister puts the number at 400. Hezbollah denies the claims.

August 2: Hezbollah fires more than 230 rockets into Israel in one day - the highest number so far. Some land as much as 70km inside Israel. Israeli commandos in helicopters raid an Iranian-funded hospital in Baalbek. Israel claims to capture five mid-level Hezbollah members in the attack; Hezbollah claims that only civilians are killed.

-Ehud Olmert says fighting will continue until an international force arrives in south Lebanon to disarm Hezbollah. Several thousand Israeli troops are now believed to be in south Lebanon. Israeli hackers target Hezbollah TV.

August 3: Israel's government reportedly prepares to occupy southern Lebanon up to the Litani River. Hezbollah's leader Hasan Nasrallah warns that his fighters will launch rockets at Tel Aviv if Beirut is bombed again. Four Israeli soldiers are killed in heavy fighting in south Lebanon. At least eight Israeli civilians are killed in Hezbollah rocket attacks against Israeli cities. August 4: Israeli air raid hits farm close to Syrian border in Bekaa Valley, killing 33 farm workers and wounding 20. Hezbollah fires more than 100 rockets into northern Israel, killing three people and wounding several. At least two rockets land in or near Israeli city of Hadera, about 80km inside Israel, the deepest rocket attack so far.

-US and France inch closer to a deal on a UN resolution calling for an end to fighting. Bombardment of a house in frontline Taibeh village in south Lebanon kills seven civilians and wounds 10. Israeli aircraft destroy four bridges linking Beirut to the north, disrupting aid efforts. Hezbollah fighters kill three Israeli soldiers near Markaba.

August 5: Lebanon rejects a draft UN resolution proposed by the US and France that calls for "full cessation of hostilities" between Israel and Hezbollah, saying it did not adequately address Lebanese concerns. An Israeli minister says time is running out for Israel's military campaign in Lebanon, following the completion of the draft UN resolution.

-Hezbollah rockets kill three people in northern Israel and wound five. Israel warns residents of Sidon to evacuate south Lebanon's biggest city. Helicopter-borne Israeli naval commandos attack Hezbollah fighters near the southern Lebanese city of Tyre overnight. -Thousands of people demonstrate in Britain and France to demand a Middle East ceasefire.

August 6: Israel continues its ground and air offensive in Lebanon, launching a series of attacks that kills 13 people. At least 15 people are killed by Hezbollah's deadliest wave of rocket attacks on Israel since fighting began on July 12.

-Israel says it will keep attacking Hezbollah until an international force arrives to take over in southern Lebanon. Condoleezza Rice, the US secretary of state, says that there will be violence in the Middle East "for some time to come" even after the adoption of a UN resolution aimed at ending the conflict.

-Ehud Olmert, the Israeli prime minister, in an interview with a German newspaper, tells European leaders to stop preaching to him about civilian war casualties.

August 7: The Lebanese government says it will send 15,000 troops to the south when Israeli troops begin to withdraw from the area. Israeli attacks against villages in southern and eastern Lebanon claim about 60 lives in 24 hours.

-A UN Security Council vote on resolution to end conflict is delayed.

-Israeli army says three of its soldiers killed in battles in south Lebanon and Hezbollah fires more rockets into northern Israel, wounding one person. Fouad Siniora, the Lebanese prime minister, demands "quick and decisive ceasefire" and calls for immediate withdrawal of Israeli troops from south Lebanon.

-Lebanon's health minister says the Israeli offensive has killed 925 people, mostly civilians, and left 75 missing and presumed dead, not including Monday's casualties. Ninety-seven Israelis have been killed.

August 8: The Arab League accuses the UN of doing nothing to solve the crisis, saying that the conflict will sow "the seeds of hatred and extremism across the Middle East". At least 19 people are killed during Israeli air strikes with 13 killed in two raids on the town of Ghaziyeh, near Sidon.

-Four Israeli soldiers are killed during clashes with Hezbollah and the group continues to fire rockets at civilian areas of northern Israel. Israeli military officials announce that the Israeli army is now holding land up to 8km inside Lebanon.

August 9: Fighting continues in southern Lebanon, with the Israeli army confirming that 15 soldiers were killed in clashes with Hezbollah. Israeli fighter jets continue to strike targets in the north, east and centre of Lebanon, leaving at least one person dead.

-Israel announced that it was expanding its ground offensive in Lebanon, pushing troops up to 20km over the border. Hassan Nasrallah, the secretary-general of Hezbollah, said his group rejected a proposed UN resolution to end the conflict but backed a Lebanese government proposal to send troops to the south of the country.

August 10: Israeli warplanes targeted an historic lighthouse in western Beirut - the first strike on Beirut proper since Hezbollah warned that rockets would be fired at Tel Aviv if the capital was hit. Vehicles and roads in the Bekaa valley were also targeted killing at least one person. Israel dropped leaflets in the north threatening to attack trucks on the coastal road which leads to Syria.

-Two people, including a toddler, were killed when a Hezbollah rocket hit a house in the Israeli-Arab village of Deir al-Assad. In the south, Israeli troops faced heavy resistance as they took control of the strategically important Christian town of Marjayoun.

-The UN humanitarian relief coordinator has criticized both sides for not stopping fighting for long enough to allow aid to reach 120,000 civilians who need help in southern Lebanon.

August 11: Israel rejects a 72-hour truce proposed by Russia and bombs parts of southern Beirut and southern Lebanon. A UN contingent is dispatched to provide a convoy to remove approximately 350 Lebanese soldiers held in their barracks by Israeli soldiers in Marjayoun.

-At least 26 people are killed by Israeli attacks, including 11 people on a bridge in the north of the country and seven killed when a drone fired rockets on a convoy of cars leaving the south.

-Hezbollah resumed its volley of rockets, hitting Haifa and wounding at least two. Israel drops anti-Hezbollah leaflets on the southern suburbs of Beirut.

August 12: Hezbollah says it will abide by a UN-backed ceasefire and Israel says it plans to halt offensive operations on August 14, but both sides issued caveats to their acceptance of a UN resolution to end the fighting.

-Israeli forces make their deepest push into Lebanon since July 12, with some troops reaching the Litani River, about 20km north of the border between Israel and Lebanon. Hezbollah continues to fire rockets into northern Israel on Saturday and clash with Israeli troops, killing at least seven and wounding 70.

-Politicians in the Middle East express confidence that a UN Security Council resolution can bring an end to the Lebanon conflict.

August 13: The prime ministers of Israel and Lebanon agree to a cessation of hostilities beginning at 0500 GMT on Monday. The Israeli cabinet approves a UN resolution calling for a halt to the month-old war in Lebanon.

-Israeli warplanes launched a series of strikes on Beirut's southern suburbs, destroying 11 residential buildings and killing at least two people.

-In total, 17 civilians and four soldiers are killed in Lebanon on Sunday, police said, as Israel continued its bombardment of the country. Meanwhile, Israel has asked the US government to speed up delivery of short-range anti-personnel rockets armed with cluster munitions, which it could use to strike Hezbollah missile sites in Lebanon.

August 14: Some of the fiercest fighting of the month-long conflict takes place in the final hours running up to the UN ceasefire coming into effect. At 0500 GMT guns fall silent, although with isolated incidents reported across southern Lebanon.

-Refugees begin to return home - some not knowing if they have homes to return to. Unexploded Israeli ordnance remains a major hazard.

-Israel says it will retain its blockade of Lebanon until “a mechanism is put in place to control smuggling of arms [to Hezbollah]."


After 34 days of fighting:

Lebanon deaths:

About 1,000 - mostly civilians No precise data on Hezbollah dead

Israeli deaths:

Soldiers: 114 (IDF) Civilians: 43 (IDF)

Lebanon displaced: 700,000 - 900,000 (UNHCR; Lebanese govt)

Israeli displaced: 500,000 (Human Rights Watch)

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/South_Lebanon_Army

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