Timeline--Jordan

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JORDAN INVOLVEMENT IN THE ARAB- ISRAELI CONFLICT:

1945: Transjordan, Egypt, Iraq, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Syria and Yemen at British prompting formed the Arab League to coordinate policy between the Arab states. Transjordan and Iraq were already coordinated policies closely, signing a mutual defense treaty, while Egypt, Syria, Lebanon, and Saudi Arabia feared that Transjordan would annex part or all of Palestine, and use it as a basis to attack or undermine Syria, Lebanon, and the Hijaz.

- King Abdullah of Jordan during this time was negotiating in secret with the Jewish Agency on plans for partition of Palestine between the Jews and Transjordan.

1947: At a clandestine meeting on 17 November 1947 between Abdullah and Golda Meir she confirmed that Transjordan's takeover of the Arab part of Palestine would be viewed favorably. 1948: On 10 May Golda Meir represented the Yishuv in the last of a long series of clandestine meetings between the Zionists and Transjordan's King Abdullah. Whereas for months there had been a tacit agreement between the Zionists and Transjordan to prevent the establishment of a Palestinian state, with Transjordan taking over the Arab areas, at the meeting Abdullah offered the Yishuv leadership only autonomy within an enlarged Hashemite kingdom. This was unacceptable to the Jewish leadership. Nevertheless, with one exception, the Transjordanian army refrained from attacking the designated Jewish areas of Palestine in the ensuing war. -Transjordan forces along with the Arab armies attacked the State of Israel after it declared its independence and explicitly stated the destruction of the newly-formed Jewish state as their goal. Abdullah of Transjordan was named as the commander-in-chief of the Arab armies. Transjordan's Arab Legion was considered the most effective Arab force. Armed, trained and commanded by British officers, the 8,000-12,000 strong forces was organized in four infantry/mechanized regiments supported by some 40 artillery pieces and 75 armored cars. -The Egyptians knew of Abdullah's agreement with Meir and were determined to thwart Transjordan's territorial ambitions, "thus the Arab war plan changed in conception and essence from a united effort to conquer parts of the nascent Jewish state and perhaps destroy it, into a multilateral land grab focusing on the Arab areas of the country." 1949: Transjordan on April 3 signed separate armistices agreement with Israel along with the other Arab states. These cease-fire lines were known afterwards as the "Green Line". As a result of 1949 Armistice Agreements, the West Bank and East Jerusalem were ruled by Jordan, while the Gaza Strip was occupied by Egypt.

1950: Jordan annexed the eastern part of Jerusalem along with the remainder of the West Bank, while Israel made Jerusalem its capital and established governmental offices in areas it controlled. The General Assembly in November, 1947 had approved UNSCOP recommendation that the city be placed under United Nations administration in the partition plan but with the eruption of the war everything changed.

1951: On July 20, 1951, King Abdullah I was assassinated by a gunman on the steps of Al-Aqsa Mosque while traveling to Jerusalem to perform his Friday prayers with his young grandson, Prince Hussein. The assailant also shot at Hussein, but the young prince is said to have been saved by a bullet fortuitously striking a medal that his grandfather had recently awarded him and insisted he wear.

1953: King Abdullah's eldest son, King Talal was crowned as King, but within a year was forced to abdicate because of 'mental illness'. His son Crown Prince Hussein was proclaimed King of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan on August 11, 1952, at the age of 16, which was under the legal age, so he was enthroned one year later, on May 2, 1953.

1967: On May 30, Jordan signed a five-year mutual defensive treaty with Egypt, thereby joining the military alliance already in place between Egypt and Syria. The Six-Day War or the June War erupted thereafter between Jordan and the nearby Arab states of Egypt, Iraq, and Syria against Israel in June 5. At the war's end, Israel had gained control of the Gaza Strip, the Sinai Peninsula, the West Bank, and the Golan Heights. The results of the war affect the geopolitics of the region to this day.

-On June 19, 1967, the National Unity Government [of Israel] voted unanimously to open negotiations with King Hussein of Jordan regarding the Eastern border, return the Sinai to Egypt and the Golan Heights to Syria in return for peace agreements. The Golan Heights would have to be demilitarized and special arrangement would be negotiated for the Straits of Tiran.

-Jordan broadcasted in Radio Amman with other Arabs States reports that the United States and Britain provided active support for the Israeli Air Force. Claims of American and British combat support for Israel began on the second day of the war. Radio Cairo and the government newspaper Al-Ahram made a number of claims, among them: that U.S. and British carrier-based aircraft flew sorties against the Egyptians; that U.S. aircraft based in Libya attacked Egypt; and that U.S. spy satellites provided imagery to Israel.

1970: In September, King Hussein of Jordan moved to quash an attempt by Palestinian organizations to overthrow his monarchy. The violence resulted in heavy civilian Palestinian casualties. Armed conflict lasted until July 1971 with the expulsion of the PLO and thousands of Palestinians to Lebanon. The number of casualties in what resembled a civil war is estimated at tens of thousands, and both sides were involved in intentional killing of civilians. It was a turning point for Jordanian identity, as the kingdom embarked on the program of "Jordanization" of the society. This incident is known as the Black September in Arab history and sometimes is referred to as the "era of regrettable events".

-During the civil war, the Hashemite king asked for American support to prevent the Syrian-backed attack which could ultimately result in a victory of the Palestinians and an end to his pro-western government. In order to protect their vital Arab ally, the American government requested Israeli help. Israel Air Force planes made low over flights over the PLA tanks as a sign of warning. Soon the PLA began to withdraw. President Nixon sent an additional carrier task force and the Marine Assault ship GUAM to supplement the 6th fleet. The U.S. Navy positioned itself off the coast of Israel and Jordan to protect American interests and citizens. U.S. Forces remained on alert in the area throughout September and October. -On October 31 1970, Arafat, whose position was weakened, had to sign another agreement (similar to one of November 1968) that returned control of Jordan to the King, requiring the dismantlement of Palestinian militant bases and banning their members from carrying unconcealed weapons. At a meeting of the Palestinian National Council that followed, both PFLP and DFLP groups refused to accept this agreement and instead, accepted the proposal that Jordan would be a part of a Palestinian state to replace both Jordan and Israel.


1973: Two weeks before the fourth Arab-Israeli War broke out on Oct. 6, 1973, during the Jewish holiday of Yom Kippur. King Hussein of Jordan met with Sadat and the Syrian President Assad who are believed to have raised the prospect of war against Israel. On the night of September 25, Hussein secretly flew to Tel Aviv to warn Israeli Prime Minister Golda Meir of an impending Syrian attack. Surprisingly, the warning fell on deaf ears. Amman concluded that the king had not told Israel anything it did not already know. - As Arab position on the battlefields deteriorated, pressure mounted on King Hussein to send his Army into action. He found a way to meet these demands without opening his kingdom to Israeli air attack. Instead of attacking Israel from their common border, he sent an expeditionary force into Syria. He let Israel know of his intentions, through US intermediaries, in the hope that Israel would accept that this was not a casus belli justifying an attack into Jordan… Dayan declined to offer any such assurance, but Israel had no intention of opening another front. (Rabinovich, 433). 1975: Jordan along with 25 other nations sponsored the UN General Assembly Resolution 3379 which equated Zionism with racism.

1987: The first intifadah broke out due to political and national sentiments. Further causes to the intifada can also be seen in the Jordanian monarchy growing weary of supporting Jordanian claims to the West Bank as well as Egyptian withdrawal from their claims to the Gaza Strip. The era marked the end of the Israelis referring to Palestinians as "South Syrians" and largely ended Israeli discussion of a "Jordanian solution”. By engaging the Israelis directly, rather than relying on the authority or the assistance of neighboring Arab states, the Palestinians were able to globally cement their identity as a separate nation worthy of self-determination. 1991: During the Gulf war although Jordan have consistently followed a pro-Western foreign policy and traditionally has had close relations with the United States and the United Kingdom, its foreign relation with the West were damaged by support in Jordan for Iraq. Although the Government of Jordan stated its opposition to the Iraqi occupation of Kuwait, popular support for Iraq was driven by Jordan’s Palestinian community, which favored Saddam Hussein as a champion against Western supporters of Israel.

1994: Jordan signed a nonbelligerency agreement with Israel (the Washington Declaration) in Washington, DC, on July 25, 1994. Jordan and Israel signed a historic peace treaty on October 26, 1994, witnessed by President Clinton, accompanied by Secretary Christopher. The U.S. has participated with Jordan and Israel in trilateral development discussions during which key issues have been water-sharing and security; cooperation on Jordan Rift Valley development; infrastructure projects; and trade, finance, and banking issues.

2005: Jordan attended the four-way summit convened by Egypt in Sharm El Sheik, which was attended by Egypt, Israel, and the Palestinian Authority. Sharon and Abbas declared a mutual truce between Israel and the Palestinian National Authority.

2006: After the eruption of hostilities between Israel and Hezbollah with the capture of two Israeli solider. Jordanian King Abdullah II condemned Israeli bombing of Lebanon and especially the Qana incident which he considered a “gross violation of all international statutes.”

-Jordan welcomed the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1701 to resolve the 2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict.


REFERENCES


http://www.kingabdullah.jo/homepage.php

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Foreign_relations_of_Jordan

http://www.knesset.gov.il/process/docs/washington_eng.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gulf_War

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Suez_Crisis

http://www.rferl.org/featuresarticle/2006/07/4ae2a98d-13b9-40eb-b3d8-3ba52d5fc35f.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1948_Arab-Israeli_War

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Israel-Jordan_Treaty_of_Peace

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Six-Day_War

http://washingtontimes.com/national/20060202-111835-3132r.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/War_of_Attrition

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yom_Kippur_War

http://english.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/013B1ECF-6E04-401E-A62F-2E70D849E39B.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Israeli_invasion_of_Lebanon_1982

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Intifada

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/1844214.stm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Intifada

http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/war/jordan-civil.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/UN_General_Assembly_Resolution_3379

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Camp_David_Accords

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arab_League_and_the_Arab-Israeli_conflict

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oslo_accords

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hussein_of_Jordan

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_September_in_Jordan

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_law_and_the_Arab-Israeli_conflict

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Middle_East_peace_proposals

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Projects_working_for_peace_among_Israelis_and_Arabs

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peace_Process_in_the_Israeli-Palestinian_Conflict

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hussein_of_Jordan%27s_Speech_at_Rabin%27s_Funeral

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Islam-Israel_Fellowship

• The Yom Kippur War: The Epic Encounter That Transformed the Middle East by Abraham Rabinovich. ISBN 0805241760

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