Timeline--Egypt

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EGYPT'S INVOLVEMENT IN THE ARAB- ISRAELI CONFLICT:

1948: After the United Nations partitioned the territory of the British Mandate of Palestine into two states (Jewish and Arab). Egyptian forces (10,000 men) along with the Arab armies attacked the State of Israel after it declared its independence. This was the first in a series of open wars in which Egypt will fight Israel in the Arab-Israeli conflict. 1949: On February 24 signed separate armistices agreement with Israel. The Gaza Strip was occupied by Egypt as a consequence of the war.

1952: The army, led by Gen. Mohammed Naguib, seized power on July 23, 1952. The monarchy (King Farouk) was abolished and a republic proclaimed on June 18, 1953, with Naguib holding the posts of provisional president and premier. He was later replaced by Gamal Abdel Nasser, leader of the ruling military junta, who became the president of Egypt after a referendum in 1956.

1956: Nasser nationalized the Suez Canal and expelled British oil and embassy officials after the U.S. and Britain withdrew their pledges of financial aid for the building of the Aswan High Dam. In response, Israel, barred from the canal and exasperated by terrorist raids, invaded the Gaza Strip and the Sinai Peninsula. Britain and France, after demanding Egyptian evacuation of the Canal Zone, attacked Egypt on Oct. 31, 1956. This was known as the Suez Canal Crisis.

-The United States fearing the spread of war after the Soviets threatened to intervene on behalf of Egypt, pressured Britain, France, and Israel to halt the hostilities. The crisis greatly improved Nasser's standing in the Arab world, helped to promote pan-Arabism, and reinforced hostility against the State of Israel.

1967: The Six-Day War (June War) erupted with Egypt and the nearby Arab states of, Jordan, Iraq, and Syria fighting against Israel in June 5. Israel invaded the Sinai Peninsula, the East Bank of the Jordan River, and the zone around the Gulf of Aqaba. A UN cease-fire was signed on June 10 which Nasser declared as void along the canal. The results of this war affect the geopolitics of the region to this day.

1968: The War of Attrition which was a limited war began between Egypt and Israel from 1968 to 1970. It was initiated by Egypt as a way to recapture the Sinai from Israel, which had controlled it since the Six-Day War.


1970: The war of attrition ended after the U.S. peace plan of June 19, 1970, resulted in Egypt's agreement to reinstate the cease-fire for at least three months (from Aug.) and to accept Israel's existence within “recognized and secure” frontiers that might emerge from UN-mediated talks. In return, Israel accepted the principle of withdrawing from occupied territories.

-On Sept. 28, 1970, Nasser died of a heart attack. Anwar el-Sadat, an associate of Nasser and a former newspaper editor, became the next president.

1972: In July 1972, Sadat ordered the expulsion of Soviet “advisers and experts” from Egypt due to the Russian failure to provide the sophisticated weapons he felt were needed to retake territory lost to Israel in 1967.

1973: The fourth Arab-Israeli War broke out on Oct. 6, 1973, during the Jewish holiday of Yom Kippur. Egypt swept deep into the Sinai, while Syria strove to throw Israel off the Golan Heights.

-On October 20th, in the midst of the war, Saudi Arabia declared an embargo against the United States, later joined by other oil exporters and extended against the Netherlands and other states for helping Israel, causing the 1973 energy crisis. Though widely believed to be a reaction to the war, it now appears that the embargo had been coordinated in a secret visit of Anwar Sadat to Saudi Arabia in August.

-The war had far-reaching implications for many nations. The Arab world, which had been humiliated by the lopsided defeat of the Egyptian-Syrian-Jordanian alliance during the Six-Day War, felt psychologically vindicated by its string of victories early in the conflict. This vindication paved the way for the peace process that followed, as well as liberalizations such as Egypt's infitah policy.

1974: In Jan. 1974, both sides agreed to a settlement negotiated by U.S. secretary of state Henry A. Kissinger that gave Egypt a narrow strip along the entire Sinai bank of the Suez Canal.

1975: Egypt along with 25 other nations sponsored the UN General Assembly Resolution 3379 which equated Zionism with racism.

1977: Sadat flew to Jerusalem at the invitation of Prime Minister Menachem Begin and pleaded before Israel's Knesset on Nov. 20, 1977, for a permanent peace settlement. The Arab world reacted with fury—only Morocco, Tunisia, Sudan, and Oman approved.

1978: Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin signed The Camp David Accords on September 17, 1978; following twelve days of secret negotiations at Camp David. This led to normalize the relations between Egypt and Israel—the first time any Arab country had recognized the Israeli state. Egypt was subsequently ostracized by other Arab states and ejected from the Arab League from 1979 to 1989 as a result of its separate peace with Israel.

-Egypt, which had already been drifting away from the Soviet Union, then left the Soviet sphere of influence almost entirely. 1979: Egypt and Israel signed a formal peace treaty on March 26, 1979. The pact ended 30 years of war and established diplomatic and commercial relations.

1980: Egypt halted further talks in Aug. 1980 with Israel because of its continued settlement of the West Bank.

1981: On Oct. 6, 1981, Sadat was assassinated at a military parade in Cairo by an extremist soldier who was a member of the Egyptian Islamic Jihad organization due to Sadat's negotiations with Israel, as well as his use of force in the September crackdown of intellectuals and activists of all ideological stripes: Communists, Nasserists, feminists, Islamists, university professors, journalists, and members of student groups..

-He was succeeded by Vice President Hosni Mubarak, a former air force chief of staff.

1982: Israel completed the return of the Sinai to Egyptian control on April 25, 1982.

1987: The first intifadah broke out due to political and national sentiments. Further causes to the Intifada can also be seen in the Egyptian withdrawal from their claims to the Gaza Strip as well as the Jordanian monarchy growing weary of supporting Jordanian claims to the West Bank. 1991: Egypt played an important role in the negotiations leading to the Madrid Peace Conference in 1991, which, under United States and Russian sponsorship, brought together all parties in the region to discuss Middle East peace. This support has continued to the present, with President Hosni Mubarak often intervening personally to promote peace negotiations 1996: Egypt under President Hosni Mubarak hosted the Sharm El-Sheikh "Summit of the Peacemakers" attended by President Bill Clinton and other world leaders. 2000: Egypt hosted two summits at Sharm El-Sheikh and one at Taba in an effort to resume the Camp David negotiations suspended in July of 2000. 2003: Mubarak hosted President George W. Bush for another summit on Middle East peace process 2005: Egypt convened another summit in Sharm El Sheik, which was attended by Egypt, Israel, the Palestinian Authority and Jordan. The Egyptian Chief of Intelligence, General Omar Suleiman, played a substantial role in negotiations between the Israeli and Palestinian sides. 2006: Egyptian Foreign Minister Ahmad Abu al-Ghayt warned on July 13 that the situation could spiral out of control after the eruption of hostility between Israel and Lebanon due to the capture of two Israeli soldiers by Hezbollah. "The rhetorical escalation by all parties threatens to provoke an explosion of the situation and to herald a dangerous phase for the region," he told reporters. The minister's comments came one day after Egypt's Muslim Brotherhood applauded the Hizballah operation.


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Foreign_relations_of_Egypt

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gulf_War

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Suez_Crisis

http://www.rferl.org/featuresarticle/2006/07/4ae2a98d-13b9-40eb-b3d8-3ba52d5fc35f.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1948_Arab-Israeli_War

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Six-Day_War

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/War_of_Attrition

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yom_Kippur_War

http://english.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/013B1ECF-6E04-401E-A62F-2E70D849E39B.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Israeli_invasion_of_Lebanon_1982

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Intifada

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/1844214.stm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Intifada

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/UN_General_Assembly_Resolution_3379

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Camp_David_Accords

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arab_League_and_the_Arab-Israeli_conflict

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oslo_accords

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